#### B.Tech Electronics AND Communication Engineering Outline Syllabi

**B.Tech Courses: Core Courses:**

**15B11EC111 Electrical Science -I (4 credits)**

Basic Electrical Circuit, Network Analysis; Sinusoidal steady state analysis: Diodes & Applications; Bipolar Junction Transistor; Instruments- CRO, digital meters, function generators, power supplies, moving coil, moving iron, energy meter and watt meter.

**15B11EC211 Electrical Science -II (4 credits)**

Transient Analysis; Operational Amplifiers; Basics of digital electronics; Introduction of Signals and Systems; Introduction of Communications; Introduction to dc motors and dc generators, three phase and single phase induction motors; Single Phase Transformer; Analogy between mechanical and electrical quantities; Conversion between systems.

**15B11EC315 Electrical Machines and Instruments (4 credits)**

Single phase Transformer Operation and EMF Equation, Transformer at No Load and with load, Phasor Diagram, Open and short Circuit tests, Regulation & Efficiency, Autotransformer. Construction of a DC Machine,Armature Winding, DC Machine as Generator or Motor, Types of DC Generators, Efficiency, Condition for Maximum Efficiency, Characteristics of DC Generators, DC Motors, Equivalent Circuit, Speed Regulation, Torque and Speed Characteristics. Construction of Synchronous Machine, Synchronous Speed, Rotating Magnetic Flux due to Three-Phase Currents, EMF Equation. Synchronous Motors, Phasor Diagrams for Generator and Motors, Effect of Change in Mechanical Load, Effect of Change in Excitation, Synchronous Condenser. Construction of Induction Machines (Squirrel Cage Rotor, Slip ring or Phase-Wound Rotor). Rotor EMF, Current and Power Factor, Torque-Slip Characteristics, Starting and maximum Torque, Modes of Operation, Single-Phase Motors, Double-Field Revolving Theory The Remedy (Two-Phase Motors), Types of Single-Phase Motors, Stepper Motors, Types of Stepper Motors, Variable Reactance (VR) Stepper Motors, Step Angle, Resolution, Speed Measuring Instruments, Permanent Magnet Moving Coil (PMMC) and Moving Iron (MI) type Instruments, Ohmmeter, Meter Sensitivity, Loading Effect, Multimeter, Dynamometer Wattmeter, Single-Phase Induction Type Energy Meter, universal meters. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO), Construction, Working and Applications. Digital meters, Function Generators. AC Bridges: Maxwell, Anderson, Hay, Schering and WeinBridge.

**15B11EC311/18B11EC214 Signals and Systems (4 credits)**

Signal types and their representation- Time Domain, Frequency Domain. Discrete and ContinuousTransforms- Laplace, Fourier and Z- Transforms. Introduction to Random Signals. Systems- Linear and Non-Linear, Continuous and Discrete Systems. System Characterization-Time Domain and Frequency Domain. System Analysis. Systems Stability Criterion. Introduction to DSP.

**15B11EC312 Digital Electronics (4 credits)**

Introduction to Digital Systems, Binary Codes and Boolean Algebra, Boolean Function Representation and Minimization Techniques: K-map, QM technique, Combinational Logic Circuits and their Applications, Sequential Logic Circuits and their Applications, Programmable Logic Devices, Digital Memories , Digital Logic Families, Wave Shaping Circuits, Introduction to HDL Simulation.

**18B11EC213/****15B11EC314 Digital Systems/Introduction to Digital System (Only for CSE & IT Students) (4 credits)**

Minimization Techniques and Arithmetic Circuits, Flip-Flops, Counters; Signals and classification of signals: Continuous time and discrete time, Even and odd, periodic and non-periodic (along with how to calculate fundamental period), Energy and Power signals (along with mathematical expressions), Basic signals - unit impulse, unit step and unit ramp. Basic operations of signals: time-scaling, time- shifting, etc.Sampling and Reconstruction of Signals, Digital Modulation Techniques, Error Analysis; Fourier Transform, Filter Design

**15B11EC313 Microprocessor and Microcontroller**

Introduction to Microprocessors, 8085 Microprocessor, 8051 Microcontroller, Real World Interfacing with Microcontrollers

**15B11EC411 Analogue Electronics (4 credits)**

Detailed analysis of BJT and FET biasing circuits, stability considerations. Analysis of single and multistage amplifiers. Amplifier with different types of feedbacks. Power amplifiers, tuned amplifiers and oscillators, linear integrated circuits- process technology, differential amplifiers and current mirrors. Op-amp details. Op-amp circuits and applications- active filters, functional amplifiers.

**15B11EC412 Analog Communications (4 credits)**

Review of time and frequency domain description of signals, band width concept. Elements of communication system – point to point and broadcast. Concept and theory of amplitude and angle modulation– generation, detection, spectra, BW and power analysis. PLL theory and application. Sampling Theorem, Pulse modulation systems. Time and frequency division multiplexing techniques. Radio transmitters and receivers. Introduction to noise and its effect on communication systems.

**15B11EC413 Digital Signal Processing(4 credits)**

Signal Processing: Z-Transform, Digital structures, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Fast Fourier Transform, Digital Filter design: FIR filters design. IIR filter design from analog filters, Multirate Digital Signal Processing, Adaptive Filters: Application of adaptive filters, Adaptive Direct-form FIR filters, Adaptive Lattice-Ladder filters, Spectral Analysis and Power Spectrum Estimation.

**15B11EC414 VLSI Technology and Applications (4 credits)**

Overview of VLSI design methodologies, VLSI design flow, Design hierarchy, Fabrication of MOSFETs, MOS transistor theory, Elements of physical design, Logic design with MOSFETs, MOS inverters, Combinational and sequential MOS logic circuits, Dynamic logic circuits, System specifications using HDL, Semiconductor memories, CPLD and FPGA.

**15B11EC511 Digital Communications (4 credits)**

Digital signals – merits and demerits. Baseband transmission of digital signals. Voice and video digitization techniques – coding, decoding, BW and performance. Digital modulation techniques – Binary and M-ary. Line coding techniques. Digital Radio. Channel noise performance. Digital Synchronous Hierarchy standards, Introduction to error control.

**18B11EC212 Analog and Digital Communication (4 Credits)**

Elements of a communication system; Analog and digital signals, bandlimited signals and systems, bandwidth, Introduction to modulation; AMSC, DSB, SSB, VSB Communication. Detection of AM signals: Coherent detection, Envelope detection, Costas receiver, Concepts of FM and PM, Narrowband and wideband FM, Direct and indirect methods of FM generation, Detection of FM signals, AM and FM Transmitters, Superheterodyne AM and FM Receivers. FDM,TDM, Interchannel crosstalk and bandwidth effects, Time and frequency domain sampling with aperture effects, Reconstruction of signals, Quantization process and mean square quantization error, Pulse Code modulation, Line Codes: Unipolar-NRZ, polar-NRZ, Unipolar-RZ, Bipolar-RZ, Manchester Code, DPCM, DM, Bit rate and bandwidth of digital signals, ASK, FSK ,PSK, QPSK Modulation, 16-QAM, Demodulation, Constellation diagrams, BER and their BW calculation,

**18B11EC215 Digital Circuit Design (4 Credits)**

Introduction to Digital Systems, Binary Codes and Boolean Algebra, Boolean Function Representation and Minimization Techniques, Combinational logic circuits, Sequential logic circuits, State machines, Programmable logic devices, Wave shaping circuits, Introduction to digital logic families, Introduction to VHDL

**15B11EC611 Telecommunication Networks (4 credits)**

Telecommunication network model. Switching technologies: circuit-switching and packet-switching. Different networks types. Computer Networks: Seven layered OSI model. Functions of different layers. Detailed working of data link, network, transport and physical layers with standards. IP and TCP description. Local area networks: Protocols, physical layer specifications. ISDN, B-ISDN, ATM. Network performance.

**18B11EC312****/15B11EC612 Electromagnetic Engineering (4 credits)**

Review of Electrostatic & Magnetostatic Fields. Maxwell’s Equations, Boundary Conditions. Wave Propagation in different media. Poloarization. Boundary conditions in dielectrics and conductors. Poynting Vector and Poynting Theorem. Transmission Lines. Waveguides. Radiation and Fundamentals of Antennas.

**15B11EC613 Control Systems (4 credits)**

Introduction, System Modeling and Mathematical Representation of Systems, Time Domain Analysis and Design: Input – Output Approach, State Variable Approach to Time Domain Analysis, Integrated Approach to Stability Analysis, Root Locus Method and Design in Time Domain, Frequency Response Analysis and Design, Design of Digital Control Systems.

**17B11EC731/15B11EC711 Mobile Communications (4 credits)**

Mobile communication system evolution, Basics of Mobile Communications, The Cellular Concept and System Design Fundamentals, Handoff Techniques, SIR Estimation, Free space and Two ray ground propagation models, Small Scale and Large Scale Fading, Multipath Fading, Rayleigh and Rician Channels, Mobile communication network architectures-GSM, GPRS, and UMTS, Multiplexing Techniques- FDMA, TDMA, CDMA and OFDMA, Introduction to LTE networks.

**ELECTIVE COURSES:**

**19B12EC412 Advance Topics in Wireless Communications**

Need and expectation of next generation of wireless technology, diversity, Concept of SISO, SIMO, MISO and MIMO systems, Small scale and large scale fading channels, Fading models for small scale and large scale fading, Capacity for SISO and MIMO channels, Power allocation in MIMO systems, Space-Time codes, SER analysis of Alamouti space-time code over fading channels. MIMO detection, Definition of UWB, properties and limitation of UWB signal. UWB channel Modelling.

**17B1NEC741 Digital Hardware Design**

Introduction, Modeling Hardware with HDL, Clocking of Sequential Circuits, Finite State Machine (FSM), Asynchronous Finite State Machines, Fault Analysis.

**17B1NEC736 Essentials of VLSI Testing (4 credits)**

Introduction to Testing Terminology, Types of tests, Test Process and Equipments, Automatic Test Equipment, Fault coverage, Defect level, Fault Modeling, Testability measures, Testing algorithms for Combinational & sequential circuits, Delay Test, Design For Testability.

**16BINEC831****Sonar system and acoustic imaging****(4 credits)**

Introduction to sonar system. Side scan sonar, sector scan sonar, beam-forming methods in sector scans sonar. Swept frequency delay line scanning, phase beam-forming, modulation scanning, multistage beam-forming, DFT beam-former, Basic of synthetic aperture sonar, matched filtering, Doppler shift aspects, range resolution in synthetic aperture sonar, minimum sampling rate for synthetic aperture sonar, spot lights, and squints in synthetic aperture sonar. Continuous time frequency modulation technique (CTFM), blind time problem in CTFM, dual demodulator CTFM technique, phase difference radial projection method. Estimation of moving target speed in water,Doppler log, JANUS, Issues in Doppler log methods, correlation-log, Localization using time delay estimation, Beacons, Pingers. Localization using three hydrophones.

**17B1NEC742****Introduction to data analysis with R****(4 credits)**

Introduction to R and MATLAB programming for data analysis. Probabilistic models: Events and their probabilities, Rules of probability, Conditional probability and independence, Distribution of a random variable, Expectation and variance, Families of discrete distributions, Families of continuous distributions, Descriptive statistics, Inferential statistics, Hypothesis testing and estimation (z-test, t-test, proportional z-test) ANOVA, Regression, Introduction to Unsupervised and Supervised machine learning algorithms like ordinary least squares method, k-NN technique, Logistic regression etc. Detailed simulation of ANOVA, Regression, and Machine learning techniques in Matalb/R languages.

**19B12EC413 Convergence and Next Generation Networks (4 credits)**

Introduction to Convergence and NGN, Voice/Multimedia over IP Network, Network Security, Signaling Protocols for Converged Networks, Media Gateway Control & Softswitch, Next Generation Network, Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC) & Unified Communications.

**19B12EC415 Network Security (4 Credits)**

Security concepts and terminology, Symmetric-key & Asymmetric-key Cryptosystems, Message Authentication & Digital Signatures, Entity Authentication & Security for Remote Access, Key Distribution, Security at the Transport and Network Layers, Security in Wireless Networks, Network Vulnerabilities & Malware, Security at the Application Layer.

**17B1NEC738 Radar Signals and Systems (4 credits)**

Radar Fundamentals, principle of operation, classification, block diagram, Range, Doppler frequency, Radar equations, PDF, Minimum detectable signal, Pulse integration, Radar cross section, antenna parameter, radar losses,Continuous Wave Radar, Linear FM (LFM) CW Radar, Multiple Frequency CW Radar, Moving Target Indicator radar, Delay Line Cancellers, Limitations to MTI Performance, Non-coherent MTI, Pulsed Radar, Resolving Range Ambiguity, Resolving Doppler Ambiguity, Radar Signal analysis and its detection in Noise, Matched Filter Receiver, Correlation Function and Cross-correlation Receiver, Tracking with Radar, Sequential Lobing, Conical Scan, Monopulse Tracking Radar, synthetic Aperture Radar, Guided missiles, Guidance phases during flight, Classification of guidance laws, Aircraft Navigation, Position Fixing and Dead-reckoning systems. LORAN, DECCA, OMEGA, Very High Frequency Omni-Directional Range (VOR).

**19B12EC417 Machine Learning and Statistical Pattern Recognition (4 credits)**

Supervised learning (generative/discriminative learning, parametric/non-parametric learning, neural networks, support vector machines); unsupervised learning (clustering, dimensionality reduction, kernel methods); learning theory (bias/variance tradeoffs; VC theory; large margins); reinforcement learning and adaptive control. The course will also discuss recent applications of machine learning, such as to robotic control, data mining, autonomous navigation, bioinformatics, speech recognition, and text and web data processing.

**19B12EC414 Natural Language processing with Deep Learning (4 credits)**

Word2Vec - The Skip-Gram Model, Efficient Estimation of Word Representations in Vector Space, Distributed Representations of Words and Phrases and their Compositionality Word Vectors 2 and Word Senses, Improving Distributional Similarity with Lessons Learned from Word Embeddings, Evaluation methods for unsupervised word embeddings, A Latent Variable Model Approach to PMI-based Word Embeddings, Linear Algebraic Structure of Word Senses, with Applications to Polysemy On the Dimensionality of Word Embedding. Word Window Classification, Neural Networks, and Matrix Calculus, Learning Representations by Back propagating Errors, Derivatives, Back propagation, and Vectorization, understand back prop Linguistic Structure: Dependency Parsing , Incrementality in Deterministic Dependency Parsing A Fast and Accurate Dependency Parser using Neural Networks Dependency Parsing Globally Normalized Transition-Based Neural Networks, The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Recurrent Neural Networks, Sequence Modeling: Recurrent and Recursive Neural Nets, On Chomsky and the Two Cultures of Statistical Learning, Vanishing Gradients and Fancy RNNs

**18B12EC421 Image Analysis and Feature Extraction (4 credits)**

Understanding the facts and ideas of Image Processing and demonstrate the review of Signal processing, Matrix algebra and Probability. Develop the basic understanding of Sampling and Quantization of the processed Image and its Transforms. Examine the result in the processed image by applying Edge detection, Segmentation, Registration, Tracking and Reconstruction. Determine the object recognition, Image compression and its optimization using Nature inspired algorithm.

**18B12EC417 Satellite Communication (4 credits)**

Define Satellite and its historical background, outline the basic concepts of Satellite communications, and Recall the Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Develop the equations of the orbit, explain the satellite launching and launch vehicles and outline terminology of earth-orbiting Satellites. Demonstrate the space segment, antenna subsystem, estimate different parameters and design uplink and downlink. Apply various multiple access techniques for satellite communication and analyze Noise and Bandwidth. Also Interpret applications of various types of satellites established in different earth orbits.

**18B12EC420 Smart and Sustainable Systems (4 Credits)**

Smart Systems : Introduction to smart systems and their role in implementing sustainable systems, basics of Sensors, Actuators and Controllers, Sensor network integration, IOT, Smart Integrated systems. Green Energy: Fundamentals of renewable sources energy. Hybrid Energy Systems: configurations, design and optimization techniques. Smart Grids: Communication in power systems, smart grid technologies, grid integration, issues in grid integration, smart grid policy and regulation. E-Mobility: Basics of Electric Vehicles, Vehicle Types, EV infrastructure: Hardware; Specifications, Policies, Feasibility analysis, Infrastructural Issues, Economics of EV, Prospects in India. Smart Cities: Green Construction, Zero-Energy buildings, Smart urban transportation, Electronic and Digital Technologies, Transition issues, Policies, Smart Cities Mission, India

**17B1NEC734****RF and Microwave Engineering (4 Credits)**

Basics of RF and microwave engineering, frequency ranges and their applications, S-parameter characteristics of different devices, Microwave Transmission Lines, Smith Chart, Impedance matching, Microwave Components, Microwave Devices and Sources, Microwave Measurements, Microwave Propagation and Applications, Microwave Transceivers, RF MEMS.

**17B1NEC735 Information Theory and Applications (3 credits)**

Review of Basic Probability, Information Measure, Data Compression, Error Control Coding, Linear Block Codes, Cyclic Codes, Convolutional Codes, Turbo Codes.

**17B11EC733 Optical Communication (3 credits)**

Overview of Optical fibre Communications, Optical fibres Structures, Signal Degradation in Optical fibres, Optical Sources, Power Launching and Coupling, Photodetectors & Receivers, Optical system design.

**15B1NEC732 Speech Signal Processing (3 credits)**

Fundamental of Speech signals- Physiology of Human Speech Production Mechanism, Basics of articulatory and acoustics phonetics, LTI Model for Speech production, Types of Speech, Time-domain analysis, spectral domain analysis, spectrogram of narrowband and wideband signals, Homomorphic Processing, Cepstral analysis, Short-Time Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT). Sound perception, auditory masking, Critical bands, auditory models. Speech Quantization and Coding- Standards, Uniform and Non-Uniform Quantizers Speech and speaker recognition- Speech Recognition Systems, VQ-HMM-Based Speech Recognition, Speech Processing Applications- Speech synthesis.

**15B1NEC731 Soft Computing Techniques (3 credits)**

Characterizing Soft Computing Approaches, Mathematical model of Neuron, Perceptron and MLP, Characterizing Neural Network Architectures, Learning in Artificial Neural Networks; Supervised, Unsupervised and Competitive Learning paradigms; Learning rules and Functions, Hebbian Learning, Associative Memories, Self Organizing Maps, Computing with Artificial Neural Networks, Applications of Artificial Neural Networks in text analytics. Introduction to Fuzzy Sets, Operations on Fuzzy sets, Fuzzy Logic, Fuzzy Measures. Introduction to Genetic Algorithms, Genetic Operators and Parameters, Genetic Algorithms in Problem Solving, Theoretical Foundations of Genetic Algorithms, Implementation Issues.

**15M2NEC351 CMOS IC Interface Design (3 credits) **

Analog and Mixed Signal circuit design in scaled CMOS, MOS Operation (weak, moderate, strong inversion),Basic transistor stages with low voltage supplies, Device mismatch and its impact on circuit performance, Temperature and supply-independent biasing, Noise in circuits, Low-noise transimpedance amplifier, Phase-locked loop, reference voltage and current generators, Low dropout regulators, Low-noise amplifier, MEMS devices and their Interface ICs.

**15B1NEC733 Fundamentals of Embedded Systems (3 credits) **

Fundamental of Embedded System and its applications, Future Trends of Embedded System, Design Parameters of Embedded System and its significance, Microprocessor Versus Microcontrollers, Microcontrollers for Embedded Systems, Embedded Versus External Memory Devices, CISC Versus RISC Processors. Harvard Versus Von-Neumann architecture, Detailed study of Microcontrollers-AVR (ATMega16/32) Microcontroller, Concept of Embedded C programming, Real world Interfacing with Microcontroller, Concept of RTOS , Advanced Microprocessors (ARM7) and Communication Protocols.

**16B1NEC733 Antenna Theory and Wave Propagation (3 credits)**

Definition of antenna, Function of antenna, Properties of antennas, Basic antennas parameters and elements, Radiation mechanism, Radiation field, Power and Radiation Resistance, Radiation, induction and electronic field, Hertzian dipole, Different current distribution in liner antennas, Radiation characteristics of dipoles. Uniform linear array, Broadside and endfire array, Array of non isotropic radiations, Principles of pattern multiplication, Binomial arrays. Yagi-uda antenna, Log-periodic antenna, Loop antenna, Helical antenna. Aperture Antennas, Microstrip Antennas, Antennas for Special Applications, Radio Wave Propagation: Surface Wave, Space wave, Tropospheric wave propagation, Ducting, Inosphere Layers, Inosphere wave Propagation, MUF, Skip distance, Fading Effect of the Earth’s magnetic field, LOS communication, Radio Horizon.