#### B. Tech. courses offered by Dept. of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering

#### Course Outline

Outline Syllabi of B. Tech. courses offered by Dept. of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering Department

**15B11PH111 Physics-1 (Credits: 4)**

Interference, Diffraction, Resolving power, and Polarization of Light, Special Theory of Relativity, Lorentz Transformations and Mass-Energy Equivalence, Laws of Radiation, Atomic Spectra, Angular Momenta, Atoms in Magnetic Field, Wave-Particle Duality, Compton Scattering, Matter Waves, Uncertainty Principle, Schrodinger Equation, Particle in a Box, Potential Barrier Tunneling, Tunnel diode and its applications.

**15B11PH112: Physics for Biotechnology (Credits: 4)**

Interference, Diffraction and Polarization of light, Modulus of rigidity, Bio-mechanics, Basic ideas of Biomechanics and Allometry, Surface tension, Viscosity and flow of Newtonian fluid in elastic channel, Bio-fluid mechanics, Polar and Non-polar solvents, Atomic spectra, Quantum numbers, Zeeman effect, Principle and working of laser, Ruby Laser, Applications of lasers in biotechnology.

**15B17PH171 Physics Lab-1 (Credit: 1)**

Experiments on Determination of Wavelength of Light by Fresnel’s Biprism, Newton’s Rings and Grating, Dispersive Power of Prism Material, Optical Activity, Planck’s Constant by Photoelectric Effect and Photovoltaic Effect, Resistivity by Carey-Foster’s Bridge, Stefan’s constant, Magnetic Field Variation by Helmholtz Galvanometer. Virtual lab experiments: Newton’s ring, Michelson interferometer, Brewster's law, Franck-Hertz experiment.

**15B11PH211 Physics-2 (Credits: 4)**

Gauss’s Law and applications, Laplace and Poisson’s Equations, Maxwell’s Equations, Electromagnetic Waves, Poynting’s theorem (derivation) and Poynting vector, Propagation of Electromagnetic waves in Free Space and Dielectric Media, normal and oblique incidence, Total internal Reflection and Brewster’s Law, Lasers, Principle and Working of Ruby Lasers, Optical Fiber and their applications, Bonding in solids, Crystal Structure, Bragg’s Law and X-ray Diffraction, Classical theory: Free electron theory of metals, Quantum theory of electronic conduction, Kronig Penney Model, Brillouin zone, Band Theory, Distinction between metals, Semiconductors and insulators on the basis of band theory of solids, Effective Mass.

**15B17PH271 Physics Lab-2 (Credit: 1)**

Experiments on Determination of Optical Fiber Characteristics, Band Gap of Semiconductor using Four Probe and p-n Junction Diode, Charge to Mass Ratio of Electron by Thomson’s Method and Magnetron Valve, Magnetostriction, Magnetoresistance, p-n junction, Hall Effect, Curie Temperature of Ferromagnetic Ceramics. Virtual lab experiments: Thermistor, Zener-diode, B-H curve.

**15B11BT212 Bio-Physical Techniques (Credits: 4)**

Qualitative ideas of Schrodinger wave equation, particle in a box, Harmonic and anharmonic oscillators, Introduction to Molecular Spectroscopy, Quantization of Energy Levels in Molecules, Width and Intensity of Spectral Lines, Types of bonding, Microwave Spectroscopy, Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, UV Visible Spectroscopy, Mass Spectrometry, Electronic Spectroscopy of Diatomic and Polyatomic Molecules, Spin Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR and ESR) and Applications, X-Ray Crystallography, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) Mass Spectroscopy, Electron Microscopy (SEM, TEM), STM, AFM and Applications.

__Elective Courses__

**16B1NPH531 Quantum Mechanics for Engineers (Credits: 3)**

Basics of quantum physics, quantum nature of matter, Schrödinger wave equation, wave functions and operators, 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D potential problems, quantum mechanics of H atom, angular momentum and spin, electrons in solids, approximation methods (variational methods, and first order perturbation theory). Specific attention will be given to applications of quantum mechanics in semiconductors, nanotechnology, quantum computation and communications.

**16B1NPH532 Materials Science (Credits: 3)**

Dielectric Polarization, Dielectric Constant, Polarization under Oscillating Field , Dielectric loss, Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric effects, Applications of Dielectric Materials, Dia-, Para-, Ferro-, Antiferro- and Ferri-Magnetic materials, and their Applications, Super Conducting Materials, Meissner Effect, Critical field, Type-I and Type-II superconductors, London Equation, BCS Theory, High Temperature Superconductors and their Applications, Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Polymers, Properties and Applications of Ceramics, Optical Properties of metals and Nonmetals, Drude Model, Photonic Band Gap Materials and their Applications, Thermoelectric Effects, Seebeck, Peltier and Thompson Coefficients, Thermoelectric Devices, Figure of Merit.

**16B1NPH533 Laser Technology and Applications (Credits: 3)**

Laser idea and properties; Conditions for producing laser action, population inversion; Pumping processes; optical and electrical pumping, Q switching and Mode locking in lasers; Types of Lasers; Solid state Lasers; Gas lasers and Excimer Laser; Dye (liquid) Laser, Chemical laser (HF), Semiconductor Lasers; Laser applications; Holography, Absorption, Spontaneous and Stimulated emissions, Laser induced fusion; Laser induced uranium isotopes separation, Light wave communications, Use in optical reader (CD player) and writer, Nonlinear optics (SHG, SFG, and self focusing); Lasers in industry, Lasers in medicines and surgery. Lasers in defense, Lasers in sensors

**16B1NPH534 Biomaterials Science (Credits: 3)**

Classification of Materials, Crystal Defects and Phase Changes, Mechanical Properties of Materials, Surface Properties of Materials, Thermal Treatment of Materials, Surface Anodization, Magnetic Materials, Biocompatible Materials, Super-Paramagnetism, Superconductivity and Its Applications, Polymers and Applications of Biopolymers, Processing and Mechanical of Polymers and Ceramics, Science of Nanomaterials.

**16B1NPH535 Nuclear Science and Engineering (Credits: 3)**

Nuclear Constituents and their properties, Nuclear Models, Nuclear Forces, Nuclear decay and Nuclear reactions, Interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, Detection of radiation. Fission and Fusion as energy source, Reactor Physics - Different types of reactors, tracer techniques, activation analysis. Radiation induced effects and their applications: Accelerators: Van de Graff, LINAC, Cyclotrons, Synchrotons, Colliders.

**22B12PH311 Engineering Materials and Technology (Credits: 3)**

Introduction to Materials, Engineering Materials Development in India, Material Properties, Fracture, Fatigue, Creep, Phase Diagrams and Diffusion, CALPHAD, Ceramics and Metals, Corrosion Prevention, Material Strengthening, Traditional and Advanced ceramics, Polymers and Wood, Glass Transition Temperature, Polymer Mechanical Properties, Material Composites,

PMC/MMC/CMC/Carbon-Carbon,Longitudinal and Transverse modulus, Processing and Selection of Material, Additive Manufacturing, Instruments and Furnaces. Materials, Environment and Sustainability, Automation in Materials Processing, Exploring Materials and Analysis/Development using Computer Software Tools

**16B1NPH631 Computational Physics (Credits: 3)**

Introduction to Numerical Techniques, Monte Carlo Methods, The Metropolis algorithm, Variational Methods and Optimization Techniques; Applications of Computer Simulations in Physics: Random Walk and its Applications to Polymers, Percolation and Fractal Phenomena, Aggregation Diffusion Models for growth, Chaos and Non-Linear Systems, Ising Model Simulations of Magnetic Solids and Phase Transitions, Simulations of simple Neural Network Models, Ray tracing algorithms in graded refractive index media, Applications in Electrodynamics.

**16B1NPH632 Solid State Electronic Devices (Credits: 3)**

Bonding forces and energy bands in solids, charge carriers in semiconductors, carries concentrations, Fermi level, optical absorption, Carrier lifetime and diffusion of carriers, fabrication of p-n junctions, equilibrium conditions, steady state conditions, reverse bias breakdown, recombination and generation in the transition region, metal semiconductor junctions, Field effect transistor (FET), Metal-insulator-semiconductor FET, MOS FET, photodiodes, solar cell, light emitting diodes, lasers, semiconductor lasers, Negative conductance Microwave devices: IMPATT diode, Gunn diode.

**16B1NPH633 Photovoltaic Techniques (Credits: 3)**

Energy issues, conventional and Renewable energy sources, Solar Energy and Photovoltaics, fundamental of semiconductors, p-n junction diode, solar cell characteristics, Quantum Efficiency, loses in solar cell, solar cell design, design for high I_{sc}, V_{oc}, FF, solar simulators, solar cell technologies: production of Si, Si wafer based and thin film solar cells (Crystalline solar cells, II-VI and III-V compound solar cells (GaAs), CdTe, CuInSe_{2}, Amorphous Si, Thin Film Si), emerging solar cell technologies and concepts (DSC), solar photovoltaic modules, balance of system (BOS), design of photovoltaic system.

**16B1NPH634 Applied Statistical Mechanics (Credits: 3)**

Overview of basic laws of Thermodynamics; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters, Concept of ensembles; Thermodynamic potentials; Introduction to equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems and related problems; Entropy and probability; Distribution functions: Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and their applications to measure properties of diverse systems; Non-equilibrium/Quasi-thermodynamic systems: Liouville's equation, von Neumann equation; Stochastic methods; Applications of ensemble formalism in dynamics of neural networks, ensemble forecasting of weather, propagation of uncertainty over time, regression analysis of gravitational orbits etc., Ising model and its applications, Molecular dynamics, Monte-Carlo simulations and Multiscale modeling for materials properties and engineering applications.

**16B1NPH635 Analytical Techniques for Materials (Credits: 3)**

Structure and Microstructure analysis by X-ray, SEM and TEM; Composition analysis by EDX and WDX; Molecular structure by Fourier transform IR (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy; Electronic structure by Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-ray absorption techniques;; Surface morphology and structure by SPM, thermal analysis by TGA,DTA,DSC.

**16B1NPH636 Medical & Industrial Applications of Nuclear Radiations (Credits: 3)**

Structure of matter, Binding energy and Nuclear stability, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear fusion in stars, Kinetics of radioactive decay and their measurement, Production of radionuclide, Radioactive dating, Radiocarbon clock, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Larmor precision, NMR & ESR Spectroscopy, Chemical shifts, Working of MRI, Dosimetry, Biological effects of radiations, Dosimetry, Tools and radiotherapy, Radiation Doses, Radioisotopes, Nuclear imaging techniques, Medical imaging using b+g coincidences, SPECT AND PET, Radiation tomography, applications, Nuclear Medicine.

**23B12PH311 Waste to Energy Conversion (Credits: 3)**

Environmental impact of excessive usage of fossil fuels, Non-conventional energy sources as alternate source, Waste disposal techniques, Carbon capture, Principles of the thermo chemical, Combustion, gasification, hydrolysis, Plasma based heating and pyrolysis, Biodegradation and biodegradability of substrate, Anaerobic digestion, Bio-methanation process, Design, construction and operation of waste pyrolysis units, Efficiency of the pyrolysis process, Key parameters in pyrolysis process, Recycling of waste plastic, Carbon foot calculations and carbon credits transfer mechanisms, Savings on non- renewable fuel resources

**16B19PH691 Computational Photonics (Value added course)**

Basic facts of electromagnetism, Maxwell’s equations, boundary conditions, Fresnel coefficients and phases, Bragg mirrors, General formulation of 1D, 2D and 3D models, Gaussian pulse and modulated Gaussian pulse, Beam Propagation Methods, Principles of photovoltaics, Solar cells, Metamaterials, Veselago approach of metamaterials, Metamaterials and its applications.

**16B19PH692 Light Emitting Diodes: Basics and Applications (Value Added)**

Introduction to LEDs: Radiative and Non radiative recombination of carriers, I–V characteristics, Electron-blocking layers, Extraction and Power efficiencies, Light escape cone, LED Materials: AlGaInAs & AlGaInN, Organic LEDs; Growth, Fabrication and Characterization Techniques; Applications: Solid state lighting, White LEDs, HB LEDs, Color Mixing and Rendering, LED Drivers, Display Devices, AMOLED, Communication, High Voltage LEDs.

**16B19PH693 Mechatronics (Value Added)**

Mechatronics and Mechatronics Elements, Relays, Sensors, Processors and Controllers, PID Controllers and PLCs, Drives and mechanisms of an automated system, Ball Screws, Cams, Camshafts, Electronic Cams, Tool magazines and Transfer systems, Hydraulic System, Valves, Actuators, Design of Hydraulic Circuits, Pneumatic System, Design of Systems, CNC technology and Robotics, Drone and UAV Systems, Implement AI/ML, Applications using MATLAB/OCTAVE and Python/Swift/etc.

**21B13PH311 Rechargeable Battery Science and Technology (Value Added)**

Overview of different batteries: Lead acid batteries, Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, Li-ion batteries, Li-air batteries, conventional and all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries, basic concepts, and definitions of rechargeable batteries, components (materials aspect) in batteries: electrodes, separators, binder, electrolyte, additives, ion insertion/de-insertion, electrode-electrolyte interphase formation, degradation, thermodynamics and kinetics and other interfacial phenomena of electrochemical cell, characterization methods of batteries, e.g. charge/discharge cycles, over potential, battery capacity, state of charge, state of health, impedance, rechargeable (Li-ion) battery development and safety issues (thermal runaway, short-circuiting, fire/explosion hazard), battery requirements and design considerations; overview of application of rechargeable (Li-ion) batteries: principles of operation including cell design example packaging; pack/module design.

**17B1NPH731 Introduction to Quantum Information Processing (Credits: 3)**

Introduction to Physical aspects of Information and Classical Information Theory, Quantum computations and communications, Quantum mechanics and Algebraic techniques required for Quantum information. Quantum algorithms - Grover’s algorithm, Shor’s algorithm, Quantum Circuits, Protocols of Quantum Key Distribution and Other Aspects of Quantum Communication, Quantum Error Correction Schemes.

**17B1NPH732 Nanoscience and Technology (Credits: 3)**

Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanomaterials, Dimensionality Effects, Properties of Metallic, Semiconducting and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Carbon as Special Nanomaterial, Synthesis of Nanomaterials, Nucleation and Growth of thin films, Characterization and Applications of Nanomaterials.

**16B1NPH732 Green Energy and Climate Modelling (Credits: 3)**

Introduction to world production /reserve of conventional energy sources, environmental effects and limitation of congenital energy sources, Physics behind greenhouse effect, layer model depending on energy flux and temperature at earth surface, radiation effect on Greenhouse gases. Renewal and alternative energy sources, like solar, wind, ocean bio gas and fusion energy. Nature and availability of radiation, estimation of solar energy radiation. Tidal energy, and its characteristics, important component of tidal energy plant, wave energy, design parameters of wave energy plant, introduction to wind energy, Nature, power, forces, conversion and estimation. Introduction to bio mass energy, generation, conversion and utilization of biogas plants, Basics of DT fusion, Magnetic confinement fusion, laser inertial fusion.

**20B12PH411 Superconducting Materials, Magnets and Devices (Credits: 3)**

Basic properties of Superconducting materials, Classification of superconducting materials, Conventional superconductor: metals (P_{b}, N_{b}, T_{i} etc.), metal alloys (N_{b}Ti, N_{b}3S_{n} etc.) and Inter-metallic superconductors (MgB_{2}); Non-conventional Superconductors: Oxide based superconductors (BSCCO, YBCO), iron pnictides superconductors, Design issues in Superconducting magnet: Flux flow, Flux pinning, Pinning force, Magneto-thermal Instabilities in Type II superconductors, Flux Jumps, Stabilization Criterion: Cryostatic and dynamic stabilization, Manufacture of long length superconducting multifilamentary wires; Design and fabrication of superconducting magnets, Magnetic field calculations, current leads, Persistent switches, and superconducting magnet energization, Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDS) and its applications, Superconductive Switches, Infrared detectors Superconducting energy storage system (SMES), Fault current limiters (SFCL), Maglev trains

**18B12PH811 Photonics and Applications (Credits: 3)**

Basic processes of laser, Einstein’s coefficients, Semiconductor lasers, Modes of laser cavity, Q-switching and mode locking, Numerical aperture of optical fiber, Step index and graded index fibers, TE and TM modes of step index planar waveguide, Losses in optical fiber, Basic principle of optoelectronic detection, p-n and p-i-n photodiodes, Basic understanding of optical electronics and nonlinear optics, Principle of holography, Applications of photons in memory devices and voice communication.

**18B12PH812 Astrophysics (Credits: 3)**

Introduction to Astrophysics, Stellar astrophysics, Classification and Nomenclature of stars, Basic equations of Stellar Structure, Relevance of HR Diagram, Life cycle of stars, Galactic Astrophysics, Shape and Size of Milky way, Interstellar Matter, Active Galaxies, Cluster of Galaxies, Large-Scale Distribution of Galaxies, Models of Universe, Big Bang, Cosmological Constants, Dark Matter and Energy, Introduction of Astrobiology.

**18B12PH813 Biophysics (Credits: 3)**

Physical Processes in Living Organisms; DNA Computing, Hamiltonian Path Problem, Satisfiability Problem, DNA Logic Gates, Quantum Dots, Self Assembly as Computing Devices, Basic Nuclear Processes, Energy Transfer Processes, Radiation Effects, Radio Tracer Techniques, Radiation Damage to DNA, Radiation Detection and Protection, Radiation shielding, Bio-Devices Organic Semiconductor, Organic Solar Cell, OLED, AMOLED, Biosensors - Working, Design and Applications, Environmental Biophysics-Ozone umbrella, Green house effect.

**18B12PH814 Plasma Physics (Credits: 3)**

Introduction to plasmas, Debye shielding, plasma parameters, dielectric constant of plasma and collisions; Production of Plasmas in the laboratory drifts of charged particles under the effect of different combinations of electric and magnetic fields and Mirror Machine; Plasma oscillations, space charge waves of warm plasma, ion-acoustic waves and electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasma, Alfven waves; Decay of Plasma by diffusion, diffusion across a magnetic field, single fluid MHD equations, diffusion in fully ionized plasmas, Bohm diffusion and neo classical diffusion; Classification of plasma instabilities, two stream instability and gravitational instability or Rayleigh Taylor instability. Ponderomotive force and parametric instabilities in plasmas; Non linear Landau damping, magnetic & inertial confinement schemes, ITER and TOKAMAK.

**15B1NPH831 Integrated Optics and Applications (Credits: 3)**

Introduction, Matrix optics; Matrices of some simple optical circuits, Fourier Optics; Fourier series and Transforms, Optical sources; Lasers and LEDs, Optical waveguides; Fibers, couplers, sensors, micro and nano lithography, Etching, Metallization, and Photonic integrated circuits; NRI (negative refractive index) Optics, perfect lens, near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and Applications.

**19B12PH811 Engineering Applications of Metamaterials (Credits: 3)**

Definition, applications and classifications of Metamaterials (MTMs), Theoretical Speculation by Viktor Veselago, Transmission Line (TL) Approach, MTMs and Photonic Band-Gap (PBG) Structures, Boundary Conditions, Reversal of Doppler Effect, Vavilov- Cerenkov Radiation, and Snell’s Law, Equivalent MTM Constitutive Parameters, Balanced and Unbalanced Resonances, Lossy Case; LC Network Implementation-Principle, Difference with Conventional Filters, Transmission Matrix Analysis, Input Impedance, Cut-off Frequencies; Real Distributed 1D CRLH Structures- General Design Guidelines, Microstrip Implementation, Parameters Extraction, Real-Artificial Materials-the Challenge of Homogenization, Quasi-Optical NRI lenses and Devices, Optical MTms, Magnetless Meganitic MTMs, Terahertz Magnetic MTMs, Surface Plasmonics MTMs.

**Note: The list of electives may be expanded as per need.**